Activated Carbon-Carbon Tissues and Innovative Options of Their Application in the Medical Process Including Computer Modeling

by Tkachenko, A. S.

Tkachenko AS (2017). Activated Carbon-Carbon Tissues and Innovative Options of Their Application in the Medical Process Including Computer Modeling. In Young Scientist USA, Vol. 10 (p. 113). Auburn, WA: Lulu Press.



 

With the emergence of tissues from carbon-carbon composites, their properties have become the subject of research and experiments in many technological niches including medicine.

First of all, in the process of production and preparation for use in medical technologies, the researchers drew attention to new, unusual and one may say unique features of these composite materials with an extremely flexible technique of focusing on the necessary properties, due to which it became possible to simulate the situation based on the requirements and features of the treatment process.

First of all, we should dwell on the possibilities to change the degree of saturation of tissues with carbon.

Serially produced tissues have been chosen for experiments based on viscose, where a carbon-carbon composite material is deposited on viscose yarns by pyrolysis in the tunnel kilns.

As it turned out, due to the fact that these tissues had a quite high thermal stability (the tissue can work at extreme temperatures up to 4,000 degrees Celsius), a real opportunity appeared to expand the options for saturation of viscose tissue with carbon, as well as by multiply repeating the pyrolysis process.

Once this opportunity was experimentally tested, it became possible to stimulate a high level of conductivity of such tissues which allowed their use as flexible electrodes in a variety of electrochemical systems, including medical technologies.

The high level of conductivity of such tissue allowed beginning searching for electrochemical activation technologies where these tissues can obtain special properties, especially in increasing surface and volume activity.

The high level of conductivity combined with homogeneity, purity and high permeability of such a composite tissue allowed its use as a current-carrying shell of a volume-porous electrode where a so-called carbon wool is used as the volume-porous core.

Fig. 1.

 

As it turned out, such an electrode can serve as an instrument for electrochemical activation of both the carbon-carbon tissue itself and the core – carbon wool, which can then be used in the medical process, where its sorption properties are unsurpassed, because the active contact surface area of such cotton wool exceeds the same area of the common cotton wool by several thousand times.

Fig. 2.

 

After activation, the tissue is an unsurpassed material for the treatment and activation of many problem wounds and severe burns in terms of its activity, permeability and development of the contact surface.

The information given on the principal capabilities and properties of integrative electrode cells allows their use as technological devices and accessories for activation without chemical reagents for many physiological solutions and liquids including for disinfection of surgical instruments.

As practice has shown, the use of integrative electrode blocks allows the use in electrode cells separating the electrode space of neutral membranes made of polypropylene tissue.

With the use of such neutral membranes, such an electrode cell becomes an electrochemical reactor where water and other process solutions can be treated absolutely without chemical reagents, only by electrochemical reactions in the electrode body.

This most important quality allowed using these electrochemical reactors as facilities for non-reagent correction of acidity or alkalinity of water or other liquids.

But as it turned out, this opportunity is much wider and deeper than one might have supposed at first.

If making the electrochemical reactor housing with two inlet channels for the liquid to be treated and two outlet channels for the treated liquid, a liquid with a certain level of acidity or alkalinity can be produced in each channel at the outlet of such a reactor.

This quality is indispensable for various processes of liquid treatment, and first of all for the disinfection processes.

For example, the absence of additional acidic chemical reagents in the acid composition provided completely new properties of liquids for disinfection and significantly increased the service life of materials used.

The use of such a non-reagent adjustment of acidity dramatically increased the life span for surgical instruments and the overhaul period for autoclaves and other process equipment.

We should also note high adaptability of structures from these composite materials.

In principle, they can be used in many components of hospital equipment, but the most unique use of these materials and electrode cells based on them is in water treatment and purification systems in hospitals and other medical institutions.

There are a number of significant technological and design advantages that, thanks to these materials, have been achieved in the processes of water treatment and purification in particularly polluted situations.

Fig. 3.

 

First of all, dwell on the volume-porous structure of the electrodes which makes it possible to increase the active contact area with the water to be treated thousands of times, with the same external dimensions of electrochemical cells and electrochemical reactors where these cells are contained.

For detailed consideration, the author provides the actual cross-section of one of the electrochemical cell options (the cross-section is shown in Fig. 4).

First of all, to increase the overall efficiency of the processes in the cell, the entire flow of liquid passing through its volume-porous electrodes 112 and 104 has a U-shape HTML form, and the flow is introduced into the cell through the bottom channel 102, and it leaves the cell through the top channel 103.

It should be noted that the range of materials used is quite extensive and also quite unusual – the cell body 101 is made of polyvinyl chloride, the electrode shells 111 and 105 are made of carbon-carbon composite conductive tissue, the core of electrodes 108 and 112 is carbon-carbon composite cotton, electrical contacts 107 and 110 are made of stainless steel, and the neutral membrane 109 is made of polypropylene tissue.

As it turned out, such combinations of materials provide a minimum consumption of electricity for the process of electrochemical treatment in the cell and in the entire electrochemical reactor, with a current density equivalent to the electrode external surface area without taking into account the volume factor.

As mentioned above, since the use of volume-porous composite materials for electrodes, together with the additional combination of carbon-carbon tissue in the external electrode shell and carbon-carbon cotton as an active filler of the three-dimensional electrode structure, increase the contact surface area at least thousands of times.

As is customary in conventional systems and electrode cells, increasing the electrode area reduces the active current density.

In our case, the current density distribution depends entirely on additional constructive factors, to which the following shall be related:

–                     the necessary level of permeability in all electrode elements;

–                     a dispersion factor for current pulses in the three-dimensional electrode structure;

–                     extremely small gap between the cathode and the anode in the electrochemical reactor;

–                     ascending flow of the liquid to be treated;

–                     high linear velocity of fluid flow in ascending sections;

–                     due to the specific flexibility of carbon-carbon tissues, there is practically no edge effect of the electrodes (in common electrodes, the edge effect plays an extremely negative role, especially in high-speed flows of electrolytes or liquids to be treated).

Thus, the above factors provide an increase in the overall and electrochemical efficiency of electrochemical cells and, correspondingly, of electrochemical reactors.

Fig. 4.

 

The very idea of using carbon-carbon tissues and carbon cotton wool in various woven and nonwoven options led to the need to create special technological equipment for the industrial production of such materials and composites.

Fig. 5.

 

Given the extremely innovative nature and properties of these composites, the process of their industrial production is also extremely innovative and unusual.

Particularly interesting was the solution of using for activation of a complex electrochemical dynamic setup with rotating anodes that supply the liquid to be treated and simultaneously the treating liquid, to a mobile cathode made in the form of a conveyor.

Such a setup can have a variety of applications. We will consider two of them.

The first option is the use of this setup for activation and volumetric saturation of the carbon-carbon tissue.

The second option is the use of this setup for the non-reagent electrochemical treatment of liquids, to a large extent, for water treatment for use in the medical process and for water treatment after use.

Fig. 6.

 

The first option involves the use of this system for the activation of napkins, pads and other bandages for use in the medical process, especially in the treatment of burns and diseases equated to them.

The second option has several types of application. It is proposed to consider the process of non-reagent desalination of water and the process of volumetric saturation of carbon-carbon composite tissue with medicines, for subsequent application in various medical and therapeutic processes.

The above model of such a system provides several processes for sampling salts from a solution or a liquid, without chemical reagents and without any significant energy consumption.

It is also extremely important for use in the treatment process to be able to saturate the entire volume of bandages or tampons with medicinal products, and such an operation is best provided by the system shown in the model.

A real opportunity to introduce the stage of computer modeling into the process of development of equipment and technology is especially valuable for continuing the innovative development of these technologies.

 


Appendix 1

United States Patent

6,139,714

 

October 31, 2000

 

Method and apparatus for adjusting the pH of a liquid

Abstract

A process for adjusting the pH of an aqueous flowable fluid includes an electrochemical mechanism for adjusting the pH of an aqueous flowable fluid and a mechanism for then electrochemically stabilizing the adjusted pH of the fluid. A device for performing the process is also included. The device includes an inlet and a channel in fluid communication with the inlet. The channel has the appearance and properties of a U-shaped connected vessel. The U-shaped connected vessel includes an inlet accumulating passage in fluid communication with an active zone between two spaced electrodes wherein the active zone has a small volume relative to the passage for accelerating fluid flow from the passage through the active zone complying with the physics of connected vessels.

 

Appendix 2

United States Patent Application

20100224497

Kind Code

A1

 

September 9, 2010

 

DEVICE AND METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF METALS FROM LIQUIDS

Abstract

A volume-porous electrode is provided which increases effectiveness and production of electrochemical processes. The electrode is formed of a carbon, graphitic cotton wool, or from carbon composites configured to permit fluid flow through a volume of the electrode in three orthogonal directions. The electrode conducts an electrical charge directly from a power source, and also includes a conductive band connected to a surface of the electrode volume, whereby a high charge density is applied uniformly across the electrode volume. Apparatus and methods which employ the volume-porous electrode are disclosed for removal of metals from liquid solutions using electroextraction and electro-coagulation techniques, and for electrochemical modification of the pH level of a liquid.

 


Appendix 3

United States Patent Application

20100224506

Kind Code

A1

 

September 9, 2010

 

PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR COMPLEX TREATMENT OF LIQUIDS

Abstract

Methods and apparatus for complex treatment of contaminated liquids are provided, by which contaminants are extracted from the liquid. The substances to be extracted may be metallic, non-metallic, organic, inorganic, dissolved, or in suspension. The treatment apparatus includes at least one mechanical filter used to filter the liquid solution, a separator device used to remove organic impurities and oils from the mechanically filtered liquid, and an electroextraction device that removes heavy metals from the separated liquid. After treatment within the treatment apparatus, metal ion concentrations within the liquid may be reduced to their residual values of less than 0.1 milligrams per liter. A Method of complex treatment of a contaminated liquid includes using the separator device to remove inorganic and non-conductive substances prior to electroextraction of metals to maximize the effectiveness of the treatment and provide a reusable liquid.

 

Appendix 4

United States Patent Application

20110056457

Kind Code

A1

 

March 10, 2011

 

SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION OF LIQUID FROM GAS AND METHOD OF COLLECTION OF LIQUID

Abstract

The present disclosure generally relates to an apparatus for the condensation of a liquid suspended in a gas, and more specifically, to an apparatus for the condensation of water from air with a geometry designed to emphasize adiabatic condensation of water using either the Joule-Thompson effect or the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect or a combination of the two. Several embodiments are disclosed and include the use of a Livshits-Teichner generator to extract water and unburned hydrocarbons from exhaust of combustion engines, to collect potable water from exhaust of combustion engines, to use the vortex generation as an improved heat process mechanism, to mix gases and liquid fuel efficiently, and an improved Livshits-Teichner generator with baffles and external condensation.