Dynamic, Vortex Mixing of Oil Paint Components in a Hermetic, Classical Vortex Tube Formed by a Pigment Powder and Spiral Tangential Streams of Oil Solvent

by Biriukova, E. D.

Biriukova ED (2017). Dynamic, Vortex Mixing of Oil Paint Components in a Hermetic, Classical Vortex Tube Formed by a Pigment Powder and Spiral Tangential Streams of Oil Solvent. In Young Scientist USA, Vol. 10 (p. 93). Auburn, WA: Lulu Press.


Figure 1.

At present, in industry, in conditions of developed serial production, many types of devices for vortex mixing are produced: gases with gases, gases with liquids and liquids with powders.

Dispersity of aerosol, gaseous or liquid material fed through tangential channels of the vortex generators determines the type of mixture obtained in the range from a nano-composite with three-dimensional encapsulation to conventional mixtures. In this case, before the mixture leaves the formation zone, all its components represent a classical vortex tube.

At this stage, it is appropriate to ask a question – why do we need such difficulties to get oil paint? Oil paints are produced in large quantities using the proven technology on the existing equipment and, as it would seem, do not require innovative intervention to introduce new mixing methods. Is this true?

The author of this publication proposes to consider the expediency of innovative transformation of the process of manufacturing particularly homogeneous paints, for example, for restoration work where the issues of quality and durability of materials used are decisive.

As is known from the history of technology development, previously all oil paints used by artists were made from absolutely natural ingredients, in which the yolk of chicken eggs was used as oil. Even now, it is quite difficult to separate the yolk (egg oil) from the protein (albumin). That is, almost always these two separated materials contain albumin in egg oil, and egg oil contains albumin. Such a state of the paint solvent leads to the fact that such paint quickly loses its uniformity and homogeneity.

In the paintings, when viewing the paint layer under a microscope, destructive phenomena can be seen rather clearly: paint contraction, deformation and cracks in the outer surface of the paint layer. Over time all this leads to the gradual destruction of paint and to the loss of the appearance of the works of art. When performing restoration work, it is required to use paints with composition and method of production the most close to the original.

This is difficult enough to do even in modern conditions. If we set the task of using paints with a chemical composition and properties similar to the original for restoration, we have to repeat the methods and technology of production used in the past centuries, returning the modern restoration process to the problems of medieval oil paint productions.

Both earlier and now the key problem is the most complete separation of the yolk (egg oil) and protein (albumin).

The question of homogeneous mixing also remains, but this is a secondary issue, since obtaining clean initial components of the paint determines final quality in almost all parameters. Thus, in order to solve the problem of formation of all the stages of creating a new type of oil paints for use in the restoration process in an innovative field, an integrative complex solution for each of the materials and technological operations of the complex process is necessary.

The tasks set are as follows:

- Production of pure or even ultrapure egg oil;

- Production of a natural preservative for paint, to ensure its stability and durability;

- Reliable and rapid mixing of pigment powder with ultrapure egg oil;

- Encapsulation of pigment microparticles in a shell from ultrapure egg oil;

- Encapsulation of the capsules obtained by mixing with the core of the pigment particle and the sheath of ultrapure egg oil with a natural liquid preservative.

Let's assume that the issues of producing ultrapure egg oil and a similarly pure preservative are solved. Mixing and encapsulation are much more complex in technological terms, they require a detailed explanation.

There are technologies of so-called vortex mixing. Implementing such technologies requires special vortex generators joint along the axis in an amount that ensures a given performance. In this case, the pigment in the form of a micropowder is placed in the central axial hole in this generator, and the egg oil or its equivalent is fed under pressure into the annular trapezoidal channel and then through the peripheral axial channels is fed into the tangential channels, from which it is injected into the pigment.

The tangential channels are designed such that the oil outlet has dimensions in the range of 5 to 10 microns. Dispersity of oil spray provides drops of 5 to 10 microns in size. The topology of tangential channels is developed and designed in such a way that injection from each of the channels has a spiral trajectory.

Since the number of such channels in one generator can reach up to 15, such a generator provides 15 spirals at the input to the pigment, injection of which converts pigment and spiral streams of oil into a vortex tube in the axial hole of the generator where micro-encapsulation takes place.

Figure 2.

There is another important factor arising from the properties of the vortex tube – the contact time between oil and pigment in such a pipe increases at least 3.5 times compared to conventional mechanical mixing, but the linear velocity of the mixture does not decrease.

Vortex generators are sufficiently technological in manufacture and operation and can work with any pumps, which is very important when used in the restoration process. Such generators can be manufactured in any scale factor, which is also important for restoration, where the amount of paint required is negligible, with the most stringent requirements for its quality.

The following three-dimensional models of various stages of assembling for paint production exhibit the simplicity of setup with full functionality. Such setup can be connected to any pump feeding oil which makes it easier to use in any restoration sites.

The diameter of such a vortex generator determines its productivity which suggests that for local mixing of the paint components for restoration, it is actually necessary to have a diameter equal to not more than 35 mm.

Figure 3.


The general idea of such setup is very simple and allows applying the simplest geometry for all parts, which in turn makes it possible for people with no special production skills to operate such a device.

Such a device also determines the low cost of manufacturing which is an important factor in organization of the restoration site.

Figure 4.


The author offers models of the device exhibiting simplicity and manufacturability of all components, the ease of assembly and operation in conditions of the restoration site.

As can be seen from the models, all housing components are centered by the vortex generators that are in contact with them which eliminates a lot of special parts and significantly reduces the setup cost while ensuring the proper level of paint production quality.

The setup is assembled using standard studs which also simplifies the design and operation.

Figure 5.


Figure 6.


Figure 7.



Figure 8.


Figure 9.

The above diagrams show in details the dynamic mechanisms of the vortex tube formation in the setup to produce encapsulated paint.

As can be seen from the diagrams, the mechanisms of the vortex tube formation are fairly simple and reliable to allow the use of such a device in real conditions of the restoration site.

The following diagrams show the options of such setup with various modifications, in particular with filter elements made of carbon-carbon composite materials.


Figure 10.






Figure 11.


Figure 12.

After describing the setup for vortex mixing of paint components, the author suggests returning to the issue of choosing oil as paint thinner. At the same time, the advanced innovative technology for processing chicken eggs is proposed. According to this technology, eggs (including substandard ones) are processed by special technology into ultrapure egg powder. Then, using special solvents, alpha-lecithin is obtained from the powder which is the equivalent of oil for paint, but considerably superior to oil in terms of purity.

After that, super-pure lysozyme – a natural preservative – is also obtained during egg processing. That is, in production of paint for restoration, an absolutely pure set of materials is assumed which are ultimately obtained from the same chicken eggs but substantially purer.

In the author’s opinion, such paint can substantially improve purity and quality of restoration of works of fine art and increase the life cycle duration of restored paintings.

Appendix 1

United States Patent Application


Kind Code



November 11, 2010

Dynamic Mixing of Fluids 



Methods, systems, and devices for preparation and activation of liquids and gaseous fuels are disclosed. Method of vortex cooling of compressed gas stream and water removing from air are disclosed.

Appendix 2

United States Patent Application


Kind Code



September 30, 2010

Method of Dynamic Mixing of Fluids 



Methods are provided for achieving dynamic mixing of two or more fluid streams using a mixing device. The methods include providing at least two integrated concentric contours that are configured to simultaneously direct fluid flow and transform the kinetic energy level of the first and second fluid streams, and directing fluid flow through the at least two integrated concentric contours such that, in two adjacent contours, the first and second fluid streams are input in opposite directions. As a result, the physical effects acting on each stream of each contour are combined, increasing the kinetic energy of the mix and transforming the mix from a first kinetic energy level to a second kinetic energy level, where the second kinetic energy level is greater than the first kinetic energy level.

Appendix 3

United States Patent Application


Kind Code



March 10, 2011




The present disclosure generally relates to an apparatus for the condensation of a liquid suspended in a gas, and more specifically, to an apparatus for the condensation of water from air with a geometry designed to emphasize adiabatic condensation of water using either the Joule-Thompson effect or the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect or a combination of the two. Several embodiments are disclosed and include the use of a Livshits-Teichner generator to extract water and unburned hydrocarbons from exhaust of combustion engines, to collect potable water from exhaust of combustion engines, to use the vortex generation as an improved heat process mechanism, to mix gases and liquid fuel efficiently, and an improved Livshits-Teichner generator with baffles and external condensation.

Appendix 4

United States Patent Application


Kind Code



September 9, 2010




Methods and apparatus for complex treatment of contaminated liquids are provided, by which contaminants are extracted from the liquid. The substances to be extracted may be metallic, non-metallic, organic, inorganic, dissolved, or in suspension. The treatment apparatus includes at least one mechanical filter used to filter the liquid solution, a separator device used to remove organic impurities and oils from the mechanically filtered liquid, and an electroextraction device that removes heavy metals from the separated liquid. After treatment within the treatment apparatus, metal ion concentrations within the liquid may be reduced to their residual values of less than 0.1 milligrams per liter. A Method of complex treatment of a contaminated liquid includes using the separator device to remove inorganic and non-conductive substances prior to electroextraction of metals to maximize the effectiveness of the treatment and provide a reusable liquid.


Appendix 5

United States Patent Application


Kind Code



August 5, 2010




Methods and systems for processing of liquids using compressed gases or compressed air are disclosed. In addition, methods and systems for mixing of liquids are disclosed.